11. February 2019 - 9:00
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Fundamentos de la Fracturación Hidráulica - Hydraulic Fracturing Fundamentals: Mexico City | | Monday, 11. February 2019

Course overview
This course will provide theoretical and practical understanding of hydraulic fracturing techniques and their application in different environments. Detailed lectures will be conducted on fracturing concepts that are industry recognized, covering aspects of fracturing design, application and analysis as well as the strengths and weakness of the various approaches to fracturing.
The course is designed for
Production, operations, completions engineers, and supervisors, who are or will be actively involved in hydraulic fracturing design, application and analysis, and desire a more in-depth understanding of the theoretical and practical aspects. Attendees do not require previous fracturing knowledge, or Hydraulic Fracturing experience.
Learning objectives
Upon completion of the course, the participant will:

Acquire knowledge to identify stimulation candidates
Understand basic analysis of design, planning and execution of frac treatments
Understand the aspects involved in the design of a frac treatment
Be able to plan and supervise a frac treatment in general terms
Understand post-frac analysis and evaluation basics.

The course is based on the basic concepts applicable to conventional fracturing as well as a review of practices in unconventional formation environments using innovative frac and completion techniques. As such, the use of powerful and unique features will be learned:

Candidate selection and screening
Optimizing designs for formation types

The course is based on the basic concepts applicable to conventional fracturing as well as a review of practices in unconventional formation environments using innovative frac and completion techniques. As such, the use of powerful and unique features will be learned:

Candidate selection and screening
Optimizing designs for formation types
Effective placement, packing of the fracture with proppant, also known as TSO design and placement
Safe placement of the completion (avoiding unplanned job terminations: screenouts or planning TSO when desired)
Real-time, on-location, Minifrac and Mainfrac analysis
Mainfrac Treatment analysis and evaluation
Pre and post frac QA-QC

The above is accomplished by focusing on resolving the major issues in Propped fracturing Stimulation:

Can the treatment be placed safely and effectively to completion?
Was the placement effective? (Is the proppant opposite and along the payzone?)
Is rock stimulated area achieved in unconventional environment such as shale rocks

Emerging advanced technologies
Over the last decade, the field of hydraulic fracturing has experienced tremendous technological development, which is slowly implemented in field operations. Some developments to be covered are listed in new practices / technologies in multistage environment in the outline below.
Actual case studies
To reinforce the learning experience and gain confidence in the application of the technology, actual case studies from around the world, will be demonstrated in the classroom.
Course outline
Well stimulation basics
Restoring flow capacityCreating new flow capacity
Objectives - why fracturing
Adding value - Basic economicsFormation damageTypes of stimulationRestoring matrixBypassing damageCreating rock contactStimulation techniques - frac generationsPassing wellbore damageMassive frac treatments – low perm environmentTSO - Frac and packMultiple frac environmentsFrac design and evaluationImproving productivityInterconnecting formation permeabilityImproving ultimate recoverySecondary recoveryCandidate recognition and optimizationStimulation Objectives and TypesStimulation CandidatesHigh vs low perm fracturingMinifrac – Mini fall offG function, pressure decline analysisLeak off coefficient, fluid efficiencyEffective wellbore radiusRock mechanicsOrientations, stresses, Hardness, PermeabilityZone Height; Presence of Barriers, Drainage RadiusRock mechanical behaviourFrac widthModelling-propagation modelsPKN, KGD, RADIAL3D
Conventional fracturing fluids
Base fluid requirementsViscosity, friction, fluid lossImpact of Volume, Pump RateEffect of temperature, share, crosslinking ratesTypes of frac fluids;Water based fluids; PSG, HPG, CMHPG, HEC, CMHEC, XantamCrosslinking systems; Borate crosslinker, Organometallic crosslinkers:Oil based multiphase/emulsions, foam fluids, applications, benefitsNon-polymeric frac fluid technologyVisco-elastic surfactantsLinear, cross linked fluids Chemicals; polymers, xlinkers, stabilizers-iron, clays, scale-, activators, breakers, delays agentsMixing systemsBatch mixing Continuous -on-the-fly- mixing systems Proppants Proppant selection Types, comparison Issues on transport; settling rates and velocity Conductivity damage

ProppantsProppant selectionTypes, comparisonIssues on transport; settling rates and velocityConductivity damageFinal proppant pack polymer concentration - PCFRetained conductivity Flow capacity areas, skin, pseudo skinWellbore, critical matrixType of damageScales, organic deposits, silts and clays, emulsion, water blocking, wettability changesFracturing optimizationReservoir deliverabilityProduction systemsPumping parametersFracturing fluid and proppantTreatment sizeEconomic benefitAcid fracturingBottom-hole pressures above pressuresAcid reaction with formation rockFrac etchingFormation integrityFracturing economics Costs vs production gainsPost treatment declineImpact on treatment values; optimum frac length, width, permWell performanceFuture value of moneyFracturing executionEquipment size, type, location limitations Design, and validation through MiniFRAC analysisCalibration treatmentsReal time data acquisitionOnsite QA/QCEvaluationDesign and analysis of diagnostic injections - Fluid efficiency, fracture entry friction Fracture modellingPressure matchingCurrent and new practicesRe-fracturing, benefits, applications, constraintsUnconventional reservoirs- shale environmentStimulation Multi-stage horizontal well applicationsDescription of multistage completion typesExtended reach applications